Friday, December 28, 2018

Evan Roberts: Destroyer of Welsh Christianity, part 22 of 22

As the work of Evan Roberts filled congregations with false doctrine, filled church membership rolls with unregenerate people, and hardened Wales to a true work of the Holy Spirit, serious spiritual declension manifested itself as soon as the strange fire died down.  Already by 1909 a very serious “decline of evangelical Christianity [was] most manifest” throughout Wales.[1]  “All over the Principality there [was] not only a serious and general falling off in the number of adherents, but there [was] hardly any interest taken in fundamental theology.”[2]  Wesleyan Methodism was confronted with a serious decrease of membership, and the “spiritual state of the Wesleyan Church” became the matter of the “greatest apprehension.”[3]  Losses also began to multiply among the other Nonconforming bodies, for these had “unquestionably lost their old grip upon the people.”[4] A “grave note of religious pessimism” came to “pervad[e] Welsh Nonconformity,” as there was a “lamentable falling-off in Welsh Sunday schools, in the attendance, in the interest taken and in the registered results.”[5]  Roberts’s revivalism had failed to produce lasting positive results, but it produced terrible and long-lasting negative ones that contributed to the transformation of Wales from a notably God-fearing nation into a spiritual wasteland.  A contemporary source stated:  “[T]he Welsh Revival of 1904-5 . . . has not been followed by any marked progress of either a political or religious character. . . . There has not sprung up in its track anything of a general and permanent character. . . . Vital religion has not been made more effective[.]”[6]  This lack of lasting godly transformation resulted in “a great change . . . in public opinion . . . and events justify the change.  Ministers in general are distressed at the number of [alleged] converts who have cut themselves off from the way of His life.  Their judgment is not a hasty one.  People seem harder than ever—due to the effects of the Revival.”[7]  In sharp contrast to the revivals in the Bible, and real revivals in church history, only four years after the ministry of Evan Roberts burned out, nothing positive was evident:
[I]n the sense of curbing the passions of the great masses of the people, in the purifying of their common speech and in eradicating their criminal tendencies.  If a plebiscite of the magistrates, solicitors, colliery owners, and prison officials, were taken [in 1909], their unanswerable reply would be in the negative.  A disenchanted nation remains neither stimulated in thought nor enriched in character.[8]
Indeed, by 1909 historians could record:
[I]n looking back at the Welsh Revival of 1904-5 we find that its success is by no means commensurate with its proportion, with its excitement at the time, with its professed statistics of individual or collective results, or even with the money expended upon it. . . . [There was a] complete failure of the Revival to permanently regenerate churches and districts to any considerable degree. . . . [T]he Revival . . . . did not produce subsequent discipline of morals, but it was subversive of, and antagonistic to, the spirit that produces results in practical life.  The religious disappointment of thousands of individuals in Wales today is such as to have made their “last state worse than the first.” . . . The moral condition of the Welsh people . . . [i]n many ways . . . was better . . . before the Revival than it is today. . . . The whole attitude of the people has undergone a deplorable change, and the change is both rapid and widespread.  No one conversant with the inner life of Wales can fail to observe the alarming spread of the personal and domestic disuse of the Bible. . . . There is an alarming ignorance of the contents of the Bible among the rising generation . . . [t]he Bible is becoming less and less the Book of the rank and file.  The . . . preacher [engages in] less close study of the Bible.  Preaching is more topical than expository. . . . [The] methods [of] . . . Evan Roberts . . . did undoubtedly repel not a few, and hardened rather than softened the hearts of some who longed for a higher life. . . . It is a fact within the knowledge of any and every man that football, the music-hall, and the public house, are the dominant interests of . . . the very thousands that thronged the various chapels during the Revival season.  Sunday shows of various sorts, that were compelled to close their doors at that time, are now in the zenith of their popularity, and there is not power enough in the churches or among the ministers and clergy to check their progress.  Since the Revival various socialistic organizations have invaded the valleys, and . . . thousands . . . hear the “socialistic gospel” . . . the social application of the “New Theology” [theological modernism].  If materialistic socialism, without a tinge of reverence for sacred things and sacred institutions, is either the direct or indirect result of the Revival of 1904-5, then it cannot but be a source of sorrow to God-fearing people that the Revival ever came.  The reaction is on a large scale . . . and the reaction is still in progress. . . . Many—very many—of [the] . . . Free Churches . . . have been obliged to revise their roll of membership [downward], and are now lamenting over the deadly indifference that has overtaken the flock.  The apathy, the levity, the decay of religious faith, the lapse in the habit of prayer, the disinclination to take part in religious work, the non-attendance of adherents, and the decline of the Sunday School, together with the prevalence of vice in its various aspects . . . have followed the Revival.  The general condition of the churches is worse than it was in the days preceding the outbreak in 1904.  There is a loss of appeal in the Gospel message, and an alarming disregard of sacred institutions. . . . The fall of the spiritual thermometer is very marked. . . . [I]n very many instances contributions towards foreign missions and the maintenance of the ministry have decreased . . . [so that they are] much less than they were two and four years previous to the Revival. . . . [T]he general condition of things among the churches in the Principality is worse since the Revival than before. . . . [T]here is a retrogression and a reversion to a more unsatisfactory type of religious life. . . . [The] mission . . . [of] Evan Roberts . . . did not produce a reversion to a higher type of reverence or moral life.  The converse is true.[9]
The evils associated with Evan Roberts’s work, feared by many Baptists and other old-line evangelicals who believed in the older and more Scriptural theology of revival, had come to pass.

[1]              Pg. 15, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[2]              Pg. 15, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[3]              Pg. 205, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[4]              Pg. 206, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.  Many drifted into Anglican sacramentalism (pg. 206, 208, Ibid.) or simply into rationalism and infidelity.
[5]              Pg. 219, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[6]              Pgs. 242, 254, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[7]              Pgs. 241-242, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[8]              Pgs. 254-255, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.  Italics in original.
[9]              Pgs. 74, 78-79, 88-89, 127, 251, 254-257, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.  Italics in original.

Friday, December 21, 2018

Christian Meditation & Recreation

I thought that the following resources on Christian meditation, and on rules for lawful recreation, would be worth a discussion here at What is Truth?  May they be a blessing.

1.) Christian Meditation

I relatively recently listened through the Free Grace Broadcaster's issue on Meditation.  (As with many books, instead of sitting down to read it cover to cover, I cut and pasted it into my computer and listened to it while doing other things.)  The articles were the following:

  • A Very Profitable Exercise - Charles H. Spurgeon (1834-1892)
  • What Meditation Is - Thomas Watson (c. 1620-1686)
  • The Duty of Meditation - Thomas Manton (1620-1677)
  • The Nature of Meditation - Isaac Ambrose (1604-1664)
  • Occasional Meditation - William Bates (1628-1699)
  • Solemn and Set Meditation - George Swinnock (1627-1673)
  • Dangers of Neglecting Meditation - Edmund Calamy (1600-1666)
  • Helps for Meditating on God - John Owen (1616-1683)
  • Chewing the Bread of Life - Arthur W. Pink (1886-1952)
  • Matter for Meditation - Thomas Watson (1620-1686)
  • A Meditation on Love to Christ - Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
  • Sweet Meditations on Christ - Charles H. Spurgeon (1834-1892)

I have not heard a great many sermons on meditation, but it is a clear Biblical duty:

Gen. 24:63 And Isaac went out to meditate in the field at the eventide: and he lifted up his eyes, and saw, and, behold, the camels were coming.
Josh. 1:8 This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth; but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein: for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success.
Psa. 1:2 But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in his law doth he meditate day and night.
Psa. 5:1 Give ear to my words, O LORD, consider my meditation.
Psa. 19:14 Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O LORD, my strength, and my redeemer.
Psa. 49:3 My mouth shall speak of wisdom; and the meditation of my heart shall be of understanding.
Psa. 63:6 When I remember thee upon my bed, and meditate on thee in the night watches.
Psa. 77:12 I will meditate also of all thy work, and talk of thy doings.
Psa. 104:34 My meditation of him shall be sweet: I will be glad in the LORD.
Psa. 119:15 I will meditate in thy precepts, and have respect unto thy ways.
Psa. 119:23 ¶ Princes also did sit and speak against me: but thy servant did meditate in thy statutes.
Psa. 119:48 My hands also will I lift up unto thy commandments, which I have loved; and I will meditate in thy statutes.
Psa. 119:78 Let the proud be ashamed; for they dealt perversely with me without a cause: but I will meditate in thy precepts.
Psa. 119:97 MEM. O how love I thy law! it is my meditation all the day.
Psa. 119:99 I have more understanding than all my teachers: for thy testimonies are my meditation.
Psa. 119:148 Mine eyes prevent the night watches, that I might meditate in thy word.
Psa. 143:5 I remember the days of old; I meditate on all thy works; I muse on the work of thy hands.
Is. 33:18 Thine heart shall meditate terror. Where is the scribe? where is the receiver? where is he that counted the towers?
Luke 21:14 Settle it therefore in your hearts, not to meditate before what ye shall answer:
1Tim. 4:15 Meditate upon these things; give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all.

How faithful are you to the Biblical practice of meditation?  Do you even know what it is, and how it radically differs from Eastern, pagan meditation?

If you have read (or after reading this post, end up reading) the Free Grace Broadcaster above, or have other helpful thoughts on how you practice Biblical meditation, please include them in the comment section below.

2.) Christian Recreation

I am reproducing below Richard Baxter's Directions for Amusements and Recreations.  He has a number of good thoughts.  Any comments of agreement or disagreement, with Biblical argumentation, are appreciated in the comment section.
If you wish to avoid the sin and danger of unbiblical amusements masquerading as acceptable recreations — you must understand what acceptable or lawful recreation is, and its legitimate purpose. No wonder Christians sin, if they do not know what is right!

Without doubt, some amusement and recreation is lawful, indeed, necessary to some people. Lawful recreation is the enjoyment of some natural thing, or participation in some activity which is not forbidden, for the stimulation of the natural spirits. It may be for the use of the mind, or the exercise of the body. It is some pleasurable activity or exercise, ultimately intended to fit the body and mind for their normal duty to God.

Amusement, sport and recreation are special terms. We do not call arduous labor by such terms, though it may be better for us and more necessary. Nor do we call every enjoyment by these terms, for eating and drinking may be pleasurable, and holy things and duties may be delightful, yet they are never termed sports or recreations. It is the imaginative faculty that is chiefly delighted by amusements.

All of the following factors are necessary to render an amusement, sport or recreation lawful, and the lack of any one of them will prove it to be unlawful.

1. The genuine purpose or intention behind your indulging in it, must be to fit you for your service to God. It must help you to function better either in your work, or in His worship, or for some work of obedience in which you may please and glorify Him. 1 Corinthians 10:31 says, "Whether therefore you eat, or drink, or whatever you do — do all to the glory of God."

A lawful recreation must be a means fitly chosen and used to this end. If it has no ability to improve us for God's service in our ordinary callings and duty — then it cannot be to us a lawful recreation (though it may be lawful to another person to whom it is a real help).

2. All recreations are unlawful, which are for their own sakes preferred before our callings.

3. All recreations are unlawful, which are used only to delight a carnal imagination, and have no higher end than to please the sickly mind that loves them.

4. All recreations are unlawful, which hinder and spoil our fittedness for the duties of our callings, and for the service of God; or, which, putting the benefit and hurt together, hinder us as much or more than they help us.

5. All recreations are unlawful, which take up any part of the time which we should spend in greater works.

6. All recreations that take up more time than is reasonable for a recreation, are equally unlawful.

7. If an activity is profane, such as making sport of holy things, it is a mocking of God. It is wickedness demanding God's heaviest punishment, and cannot be lawful.

8. All recreations which wrong other people are unlawful. (This includes the activities of stage players and comedians who ridicule others to their injury.)

9. It is also sinful to make fun of the sinful ways of others, or to act them ourselves, which is common with comedians and other profane wits.

10. Immoral, obscene stage plays and recreations are unlawful, in which filthiness is represented without due expression of its odiousness, or with obscene words or actions. To Christians, Ephesians 5:3-4 applies: "But among you there must not be even a hint of sexual immorality, or of any kind of impurity, or of greed, because these are improper for God's holy people. Nor should there be obscenity, foolish talk or coarse joking, which are out of place."

11. Those amusements are unlawful, which involve the multiplying of worthless words, engaging the participants in foolish, needless, unprofitable chattering.

12. Those amusements are sinful, which tend to excite lust in ourselves or others, swearing, cursing and railing, and fighting and squabbling.

13. Those amusements and recreations are sinful, which involve covetousness, to win money from others; or that tend to stir up covetousness in those you play with.

14. Cruel recreations also are unlawful: such as taking pleasure in watching duellers, fighters, or any that abuse each other; or any animals that are made to needlessly torment each other.

15. A recreation is unlawful if it is too costly, for we are God's stewards, and must be accountable to Him for all we have. It is sinful to spend needlessly on amusement.

16. Lastly, if you have the choice of various recreations before you, you must choose the fittest. If you choose one that is less fit and profitable, when a fitter might be chosen, it is sin; even though that which you chose would have been lawful, if you had no other.

By all this it is easy, for example, to judge the lawfulness of our common stage plays.

What is a fit recreation? It is either the body or the mind that needs recreation most. Either you are sedentary people, or those who work physically. If the former, then it is the body that has most need of exercise and recreation. In this case, to sit at sedentary amusements or recreations, instead of exercising your bodies, is to increase the need of exercising them. It does you much more harm than good.

If, however, you are hard laborers, and need rest for your bodies and recreation for your minds, or are sick, so that you cannot use bodily exercise — then surely a hundred profitable 'exercises' are at hand which are more suitable to your case. You have books to read (including the Word of God) which can increase your knowledge in history, geography, and arts and sciences.

Here are some questions to ask yourself from time to time about your recreations:

1. Do you think that either Christ or His apostles used stage plays or similar entertainments and amusements, or ever sanctioned or encouraged addiction to them?

2. Does not your conscience tell you when your delight is more in your amusements than it is in God? Such recreations (those we love more than the things of God) in no way increase our delight in God, but take it away.

Do you not feel what a plague certain pleasures are to your affections — how they bewitch, befool you, and take you out of love with holiness, and make you unfit for anything that is good?

3. Do you bestow as much time in praying and reading the Word of God and meditating on it, as you do in your sports and recreations? Do you not know the value of those precious hours which you play away?

4. Would you be found at stage plays or vain amusements when death comes? Would you not rather be found at some holy or profitable labor?

5. Will it be any comfort to you when you are dying, to think of the time which you spent in plays and vanities?

6. Dare you pray to God to bless your sports and amusements to the good of your soul or body? Would not your conscience tell you that this would mock God?

7. If you are sure that you sin not in your games or sports, either by excess or addiction or neglect of spiritual duties, are you sure that your companions do not? If you say, "We are not bound to keep all other men from sin," I answer: You are bound to do your best towards it; and you are bound not to contribute willingly to their sin. If Paul would never eat meat while he lived rather than make a weak person offend, should not your sports be subject to as great charity?

If you know what sin is, and what it is to save or lose one's soul, you will not aid and abet other men's sin, nor so easily contribute to their plight. In such cases, "we then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak [that is, to help them, as we do children in their weakness], and not to please ourselves [to their hurt]. Let every one of us please his neighbor for his good to edification [that is, prefer the edifying of another's soul, before our own pleasure]. For even Christ pleased not himself." If Christ lost His life to save men from sin, will not you lose your amusements for it?

8. What kind of people are they that are most addicted to games and plays, and what kind of people are they that avoid them, and are against them? With whom are these activities most identified? Judge wisely!
Here are some helpful counsels about choosing a recreation:

1. When you understand the true nature and purpose of lawful recreation, try to determine just how much and what sort of recreation is needful to you in particular. In this you must have respect, (a) to your bodily strength; (b) to your mind; (c) to your type of work. And when you haw determined what and how much is needful and appropriate to help you in your duty, allow it its proper time and place, as you do your meals, and see that you do not allow it to encroach upon your duty and service.

2. Try normally to join profit and pleasure together, that you lose no time. It is a sin to idle away any time which we can turn to better account.

3. Watch against inordinate, sensual delight, even in the most lawful activity. Excess of pleasure in any such 'small' or lesser activity of life is very corrupting to the mind. It puts it out of relish with spiritual things; and turns it from God, and Heaven, and duty. To this end keep a watch upon your thoughts and desires, that they run not after sports and pleasures. Else you will be like children that are thinking of their sport, and longing to be at it — when they should be at their books or business.

4. Avoid the company of revelers, lovers of pleasure, and similar time-wasters. Come not among them, lest you be ensnared. Usually, amusements rate as foolishness to serious men; and they say of this mirth, as Solomon, 'it is mad' (Ecclesiastes 2:2). It is great and serious subjects which make serious men.

5. Be zealous and apply yourself to your calling and spiritual service. Laziness breeds a love of amusement. When you must please your flesh with ease — then it must be further pleased with vanities.

6. The sickly and the melancholy (who are usually least inclined to sport) have much more need of recreation than others, and therefore may allow it more time than those in health and strength.

7. Be much more severe in regulating yourselves in your recreations, than in censuring others for using some sports which you dislike. For you know not perhaps their case, and reasons, and temptations. An idle, time-wasting, sensual pleasure-seeker — everyone should look on with pity as a miserable wretch.

If you are sedentary, walking or some honest, bodily exertion that joins pleasure and profit, is a fit kind of exercise for you. If you are a laboring person, and need only pleasure for your mind, you can take pleasure in Scripture, in holy conference, or in good books. We have flowers and trees and beasts and birds and other creatures to behold. We have fields or gardens or meadows or woods to walk in. We have our near relations to delight in; our wives or children, and our friends. We may talk with godly, and wise, and cheerful people, about things that are both pleasing and edifying to us.
God has given us a world of lawful pleasures. But stage-plays are, at best, very questionable, and most are to be condemned as unlawful. Should one who fears God and loves his salvation — choose so doubtful a recreation in preference to so many undoubtedly lawful ones? And you must know what a time-wasting sin excessive leisure is. Suppose the activity is lawful — is it lawful to give so many hours to it, as if you had neither souls, nor families, nor other responsibilities or service to perform?
For myself, when my mind needs recreation — I have a variety of relaxing and invigorating books, and friends, and business to do that. And when my body needs it — the hardest labor that I can bear is my best recreation. Walking serves instead of games and sports as profitable to the body, and more to my mind. If I am alone, I may improve the time in meditation. If I am with others, I may improve it in profitable, cheerful conference.

I do not condemn all sports or games in others, but I find none of them all to be best for myself; and when I observe how far the temper and life of Christ and his best servants were from such recreations — I avoid them with the more suspicion. And besides, I note that most people, by instinct, view ministers with distaste when they see them pursuing frivolous recreations.

Reproducing and linking to the studies on Biblical meditation and on recreation above are not by any means an endorsement of the Calvinism of Baxter and the authors of the studies on meditation referenced.  Calvinism is unscriptural for the reasons mentioned on this webpage.

Friday, December 14, 2018

Evan Roberts: Destroyer of Welsh Baptist Churches, Part 21 of 22

The pastor of the Baptist church at Builth Wells wrote to Mr. Price:
Permit me to thank you for your frank and straightforward speaking . . . on the “Double Revival.” . . . For some time I have longed to see someone who resided in the zone of fire, to rise and repudiate the gross excrescences which are passing for the real thing in the Revival in Wales.  It is something monstrously base to tolerate without protest the barbarous falsehoods that are being accepted in the name of Christianity.  My Dear Sir, we are in for one of the greatest religious siftings that Wales ever experienced. . . . From all sane and thinking men, who love true Religion and who try to augment its forces with intelligent thought, you will only receive the gratitude you merit.
        God bless you for your stand and bravery. I shall . . . accumulate facts . . . and join you in your fight for true Christianity.[1]
Indeed, as time passed, not only those who had been critical of Roberts’s practices from the beginning, but “even sympathetic ministers felt the Word was being dethroned and the singing too exalted . . . [in] Evan Roberts’ work. . . . [G]ood men, and . . . godly . . . were seen looking very frowningly upon the . . . Revival, critically and reprovingly too[.]”[2]  For example, the Baptist minister Dr. Davies thought much of Roberts’s ministry was “mass hysteria.”[3]  Other ministers object[ed] to the visions seen and to women leading in public prayer, exhortation, and testifying.[4]  Advocates of the true revival rejected Roberts’s disregard of preaching and refused to stop preaching and teaching God’s Word.[5]  While Bible-believing Baptists were among the strongest critics, “official disapproval was not confined to the Baptists, and one c[ould] find strong words from . . . leaders in other denominations.”[6]  Many objected when people would burst into song, or prayer, or testimony in the middle of the sermon, or sometimes from the start of the service so that the preacher could only listen.[7]  Many of the ministers did not preach for months,[8] and large numbers recognized that such a downgrade of the preached Word was totally unscriptural.  Even “[g]rumblings about the inferior quality of the new revival hymns grew louder and louder.”[9]  People warned that the “flippancy manifested, especially by the young and others who had just [adopted revivalistic ideas] . . . helped to kill the [real] Revival,”[10] the revival that had been going on before and apart from the work of Evan Roberts.[11]  Many noticed that “the conversions in the chapels attended by Evan Roberts were fewer than in the chapels where he was not present.”[12]  The true “Revival . . . transfigured many individual souls . . . [who] never saw Evan Roberts . . . never had . . . tumultuous gatherings . . . [but] owe[d] all that [they were] to the agency of [their] own pastor.”[13]  Criticism poured in, affirming:
In the present revival, the Bible is ignored, and it is claimed that visions and new revelations are received . . . the elders are condemned as heretics if they do not yield, and conform to the methods of the young [cf. 1 Peter 5:5].  The officers of the churches are at present ignored, although they have been set apart in office by the churches; thus, the Apostles of the Lamb are ignored; the hand of God is ignored; the Holy Spirit is ignored; and that by some other spirit that has possessed our young people.[14]
Evan Roberts’s claims to direct Spirit guidance were considered “profane, and his visions blasphemous, because he was not, as were the Apostles, endowed with Spirit gifts, [proven in] healing the sick, raising the dead, giving sight to the blind,”[15] and other Apostolic miracles (2 Corinthians 12:12).  Baptist leaders in Gwent considered various practices of Roberts “unseemly and disorderly,” while “senior ministers and laymen in Pembrokeshire . . . were responsible for the early opposition of the Welsh Baptists there.”[16]  One “fervent Baptist minister . . . split a revival meeting” by stating the obvious truth, clearly taught by the Holy Ghost in Scripture and patterned in the real revival in the book of Acts, that “baptism by the Spirit did not dispense with the need for water baptism. . . . [He] carried on his attack on the revivalists for preaching obedience to the Spirit yet not practicing that virtue by being baptized themselves.”[17]  The newspaper “Y Celt Newydd . . . sounded a warning note about voices and visions and the danger they posed to true revival.”[18]  Many church leaders . . . disavowed the work of Roberts and “oppose[d] . . . signs and wonders . . . [v]isions, voices, spiritual promptings, [and] inspired prayers.”[19]  They believed that it was a serious error to stress “signs rather than faith . . . psychic and bodily experiences rather than the Word of God . . . ecstasies in special meetings rather than . . . simple, quiet and consistent obedience to the Spirit of the One who is in us.”[20]  In rural Wales, the “response of the Baptists . . . to the revival [work of Evan Roberts] was initially very cautious.  The editor of the local Baptist journal, Y Piwritan Newydd (‘The New Puritan’) . . . stated that he could not go along with the mode of activity in some meetings[,]”[21] as various aspects of the revivalism were “sure to be working against Baptist principles.”[22]  Indeed, Baptist church membership had been increasing for many years prior to the work of Evan Roberts, with Baptist membership increasing by 24,000 in 1905 the largest rate of increase; similarly, in 1905 Independents increased by 12,000 and the Calvinistic Methodists increased by just under 16,000.  Baptist critics of Roberts affirmed that genuine growth in the kingdom and church and genuine revival were overcome by the false revivalism of Roberts and his followers.  “[T]here c[ould] be no doubt . . . [t]hat Evan Roberts did repel, that he quenched rather than inflamed the Revival flame in many districts[.]  Evidence of this fact abounds, and is indisputable.”[23]  While the revivals in the book of Acts led to the continued multiplication of churches for many years, after the revivalism of Roberts had finished its course Independent and Calvinistic Methodist membership began to decline in 1906, followed by the beginning of membership decline in 1907 for the Baptists.[24]  With the ascendency of Keswick and continuationist doctrine and the revivalism of Evan Roberts and Jessie Penn-Lewis, “decline set in so quickly after the revival’s end”—a fact which “did not augur well for the future of Nonconformity in Wales.”[25]  Indeed, a decades-long decline set in almost immediately after Roberts finished his revivalistic course, as many years of steady growth among Baptists and evangelical Protestants was transformed to decades of decline.

[1]              Pg. 158, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[2]              Pgs. 124, 262, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[3]              Pg. 251, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[4]              Pg. 259, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[5]              Pg. 55, Rent Heavens:  The Welsh Revival of 1904, R. B. Jones, 3rd. ed.  (Asheville, NC:  Revival Publications, 1950).
[6]              Pg. 261, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[7]              Pg. 262, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[8]              Pg. 42, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[9]              Pg. 264, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[10]            Pg. 35, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[11]            Pgs. 11, 17, Rent Heavens:  The Welsh Revival of 1904, R. B. Jones, 3rd. ed.  Asheville, NC:  Revival Literature, 1950.
[12]            Pg. 77, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[13]            Pgs. 259-262, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[14]            Pg. 262, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[15]            Pgs. 270-271, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[16]            Pg. 260, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[17]            Pg. 261, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[18]            Pg. 257, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[19]            Pg. 275, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[20]            Pg. 276, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[21]            Pg. 92, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[22]            Pg. 261, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[23]            Pg. 49, The Welsh Religious Revival, Morgan.
[24]            Pg. 529, “Demythologising the Evan Roberts Revival, 1904-1905,” Pope.
[25]            Pg. 529, “Demythologising the Evan Roberts Revival, 1904-1905,” Pope.