Friday, October 05, 2018

Evan Roberts and the Rise of Pentecostalism in Britain, Part 16 of 22


Roberts’s testimony of the new birth is far from certain, he affirmed that during his work in the holiness revival Satan had entered his heart, and he died with scarcely a glimmer of Christian piety.  Nonetheless, throughout the Welsh holiness revival, Roberts’s “spiritual input” was “through ministering the gifts of the Spirit,” leading Welsh Christendom to a “new respect for the possibilities of supernatural happenings, such as visions, guidances, and discerning of spirits . . . prophesyings and healings.”  In this manner he released “vital forces into chapels and churches of his day” which were spread to “revival converts” and then “all over the world through the literature and conferences of The Overcomers,” so that “charismatic and other fellowships . . . have inherited his teaching.”[1]  “Amongst the ‘children of the revival’ . . . from Wales speaking in tongues became very prominent in the early days of the Pentecostal movement,”[2] so that through them Pentecostalism spread all over Wales.[3]  The practices of Evan Roberts, and those influenced by him in the Welsh holiness revival, were almost identical with those of Pentecostalism. Higher Life leaders recognized that a “similar gracious work of the Spirit to that in Wales is in progress [in Los Angeles at Asusa Street],”[4] since “the Welsh revival . . . served as an inspiration and model for the Pentecostal revival.”[5] The only significant difference was that Roberts was a passionate continuationist who prepared the way for the restoration[6] of ecstatic jibber-jabber, but had not personally added that particular marvel to his roster, while the Pentecostals took over the marvels and continuationism of Roberts and added a gift of babbling to them.  As Roberts’s revival was, so the Pentecostal Asusa Street revival was anti-doctrinal, anti-creedal, and ecumenical.[7] Both works were filled with marvels of healing of the Faith Cure variety,[8] visions of and encounters with what were affirmed to be the Lord Jesus, Satan, and other supernatural beings,[9] and supernatural lights.[10]  Both works were characterized by disorganized meetings that went on for hours and hours and were led by supernatural powers, with total spontaneity as to what took place,[11] rather than organized meetings directed by preachers or other church officials,[12] people falling to the ground as “slain by the Spirit,”[13] a heavy emphasis upon testimonial as a validation of their work and a corresponding absence of careful exposition of Scripture,[14] predominant support from those not well-grounded in Scripture and opposition from church leadership,[15] a rejection of grammatical-historical interpretation of Scripture for experience-based interpretation and a downplaying of doctrine,[16] prophetic exhortations delivered not by men only, but also women and children, to the entire congregation,[17] and little preaching[18] or no preaching at all.[19]  The sole difference of note in Pentecostalism was an increased amount of babbling,[20] the spawn of the spirits that produced identical babbling in many pagan religions as a result of demon possession.[21] A description of a meeting at Asusa Street, and one where Evan Roberts ministered marvel-working power, is almost identical.  By changing a few minor details and by removing the added marvel of babbling as an alleged restoration of Biblical tongues, the following eyewitness description of the Pentecostal Asusa Street Mission could be a description of many a meeting with Evan Roberts:
Breathing strange utterances and mouthing a creed which it would seem no sane mortal could understand, the newest religious sect has started in Los Angeles.  Meetings are held in a tumble-down shack on Asusa Street . . . and devotees of the weird doctrine practice the most fanatical rites, preach the wildest theories and work themselves into a state of mad excitement in their peculiar zeal. Colored people and a sprinkling of whites compose the congregation, and night is made hideous in the neighborhood by the howlings of the worshippers who spend hours swaying forth and back in a nerve-[w]racking attitude of prayer and supplication.  They claim to have “the gift of tongues,” and to be able to comprehend the babel.
        Such a startling claim has never yet been made by any company of fanatics, even in Los Angeles, the home of almost numberless creeds.  Sacred tenets, reverently mentioned by the orthodox believer, are dealt with in a familiar, if not irreverent, manner by these latest religionists.
        An old colored exhorter [William Seymour], blind in one eye, is the major-domo of the company. With his stony optic fixed on some luckless unbeliever, the old man yells his defiance and challenges an answer. Anathemas are heaped upon him who shall dare to gainsay the utterances of the preacher.
        Clasped in his big fist the colored brother holds a miniature Bible from which he reads at intervals one or two words—never more. After an hour of  exhortation the breth[ren] present are invited to join in a “meeting of prayer, song, and testimony.” Then it is that pandemonium breaks loose, and the bounds of reason are passed by those who are “filled with the spirit,” whatever that may be.
        “You-oo-oo gou-loo-loo come under the bloo-oo-oo bloo-oo,” shouts an old colored “mammy,” in a frenzy of religious zeal. Swinging her arms wildly about her, she continues with the strangest harangue ever uttered. Few of her words are intelligible, and for the most part her testimony contained the most outrageous jumble of syllables, which are listened to with awe by the company.
        One of the wildest of the meetings was held last night, and the highest pitch of excitement was reached by the gathering, which continues to “worship” until nearly midnight. The old exhorter urged the “sisters” to let the “tongues come forth” and the women gave themselves over to a riot of religious fervor. As a result a [plump] dame was overcome with excitement and almost fainted.
        Undismayed by the fearful attitude of the colored worshipper, another black wom[an] jumped to the floor and began a wild gesticulation, which ended in a gurgle of wordless prayers which were nothing less than shocking.
        “She’s speakin’ in unknown tongues,” announced the leader, in [an] awed whisper, “keep on sister.” The sister continued until it was necessary to assist her to a seat because of the bodily fatigue. Among the “believers” is a man who . . . claims to have been miraculously healed and is a convert of the new sect.  Another speaker had a vision in which he saw the people of Los Angeles flocking in a mighty stream to perdition. He prophesied awful destruction to this city unless its citizens are brought to a belief in the tenets of the new faith.[22]
Indeed, “the most enduring effect of the [Welsh] revival was the contribution it made to the development of Pentecostalism in Britain. . . . The revival  . . . creat[ed] new, Pentecostal denominations. . . . it was the Pentecostals who would continue the revival emphases[.]”[23]  It is very clear that the “origins of the British Pentecostal movement . . . [are found] . . . in the revival in Wales . . . which played such an important part in the origins of Pentecostalism”[24] as a whole, since the “British Pentecostal movement . . . [was of] decisive importance . . . for many European Pentecostal bodies.”[25]  Thus, the Welsh holiness revival was truly at the root of European Pentecostalism in general.  Donald Gee, a “very influential figure in the growth of the Assemblies of God,”[26] and, indeed, the “greatest teacher of the Pentecostal movement . . . was brought to the Pentecostal movement by the revival in Wales” after being “converted in 1905, during the revival in Wales.”[27]  Gee went on to become the chairman of the British Assemblies of God and the president of the Bible School of the Assemblies of God in London.  He took long worldwide journeys to spread the Pentecostal message everywhere.[28]  Indeed, if “one looks through a year’s issues of almost any Pentecostal journal, it is virtually impossible not to come across an article by him.”[29]  Keswick theology permeates the Assemblies of God and other Pentecostal denominations.[30] Gee “compares Evan Roberts with the healing evangelists of Pentecostalism.”[31]  Daniel Powell Williams professed conversion through Roberts’s ministry and went on to found the Pentecostal Apostolic Church.[32]  George and Stephen Jeffreys, co-founders of the Elim Pentecostal Movement, were leading spiritual products of the holiness revival.[33]  George Jeffries had “responded totally to Evan Roberts’s call to obey the Spirit in everything,” and was possessed by the “revival fire” along with his brother Stephen, so that they became the “evangelists and founders of great Pentecostal movements,”[34] as George Jeffries came to spread not only Pentecostal marvels and healings but also British Israelism.[35]  After being “drawn into the revival in Wales . . . George and Stephen Jeffreys . . . brought into being . . . [t]he Elim Pentecostal churches.”[36]  Stephen participated in “large . . . healing campaigns” that perpetuated within Pentecostalism the characteristics of Faith Cure healings, namely, “mechanical and auto-suggestive methods of healing . . . relatively small numbers healed, [and] the considerable difference [in number] between those who ‘professed conversion in the campaigns’ and those who later joined”[37] churches.  Furthermore, the “father of the British Pentecostal movement . . . [and] a leading personality in the international Pentecostal movement . . . the Anglican priest A. A. Boddy, took part in the revival movement in Wales and worked with Evan Roberts.  He was convinced that the Pentecostal movement was a direct continuation of the revival.”[38]  Soon he was hosting national and international Pentecostal conferences in his Anglican church.[39]  As an Anglican priest wanting to spread charismatic doctrine and practices, “Boddy . . . was fortunate in having a Bishop who was exceptionally lenient, and even sympathetic, [to] the notorious Pentecostal meetings” he held, namely, the great Keswick continuationist “Handley G. Moule . . . [who] raised . . . no ecclesiastical hindrances . . . to those remarkable scenes in connection with a Parish Church in his diocese” because of his sympathy for Boddy.[40]  “Boddy . . .[also]  brought the Keswick understanding of ‘baptism in the Spirit’ as an enduement of power into the British Pentecostal movement,”[41] so that “through his influence, a Keswickian understanding of ‘baptism of the Holy Spirit’ became normative for most Pentecostal movements.”[42]  This Anglican priest distributed thousands of copies of his charismatic promotional work Pentecost for England at the Keswick Convention in 1907, leading many into the experience of Pentecostal tongues.[43]  Indeed, at Keswick in 1907  “[t]hose who [had] tongues [were] present, and unable and unwilling to control them when moved by the Spirit.”[44]  Boddy went on to found the Sunderland Conventions, which from “the point of view of the early history of the Pentecostal Movement in the British Isles . . . must occupy the supreme place in importance. . . . From those early Sunderland Conventions the Pentecostal Flame was carried into practically every corner of the British Isles.”[45]  Similarly, Pentecostals were engaged in prominent proselytizing at the 1908 Keswick Convention.[46]  Indubitably, the British “prominent Pentecostal streams were . . . deeply influenced by the revival in Wales[47] and its Keswick continuationism.






[1]              Pg. 254-256, An Instrument of Revival, Jones.
[2]              Pg. 184, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.
[3]              Already by 1908 Pentecostalism had filled South Wales; pgs. 34-37, The Pentecostal Movement, Donald Gee.
[4]              Pg. 86, Way of Faith (Columbia, S. C.), September 6, 1906, quoted in How Pentecost Came to Los Angeles:  As it Was in the Beginning, 2nd ed., Frank Bartleman.  Grand Rapids, MI:  Christian Classics Ethereal Library, n. d. orig. pub. 1925.
[5]              Pgs. 141-142, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson.
[6]              The onset of the Pentecostal movement was, indeed, new—ecstatic babbling did not exist among true churches or orthodox Christianity, although it was found in association with demon possession among spiritualists and others:
[T]he Church came to regard speaking in tongues as an infallible sign of demon possession.  Yet, with few exceptions, the Pentecostals have maintained that speaking in tongues has had a continuous history from the Apostolic age to the present.  Although, they say, the practice fell into eclipse at an early point, a succession of small groups kept it alive until its full restoration to the Church in the 20th-century Pentecostal revival. . . . Pentecostals have constructed a history of the “true,” or at least “spiritual,” Church from the days of Pentecost to the present.  They have compiled long lists of “authorities” to show that tongue-speaking was practiced by the sub-Apostolic church, the Waldenses, the Albigenses . . . Anabaptists. . . . and many others; and that Luther, Finney, and Moody spoke in tongues while Wesley endorsed it.  These claims are, with the exception of the [grossly heretical] Camisards, Shakers, and Mormons, without factual foundation, as [even] some Pentecostal writers . . . have recognized.  Some [advocates of the invented Pentecostal history of orthodox Christian tongues-speech] depend upon forced interpretations of primary sources, others are based upon secondary works presumed to be authoritative. . . . [T]he only groups . . . for whom speaking in tongues is well attested were the . . . Camisards in the late 17th century, Ann Lee’s Shaking Quakers, . . . and the Irvingite, Mormon, and Spiritualist movements, which grew out of the . . . revivalism of the 1830’s and 1840’s. . . . [S]peaking in tongues has apparently been non-existent in the . . . historic Christian churches since the Apostolic era . . . while modern Pentecostalism is phenomenologically related to . . . the Shakers, Mormons, Irvingites, and Spiritualists—who had previously practiced tongues-speaking. (pgs. 25-27, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson)
[7]              Pgs. xiv, xxiv-xxv, 16, 24, 34, 68, 75, 83, 167-173, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[8]              Pgs. xii-xiii, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[9]              Pgs. xii, 17, 25-26, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[10]            Pg. 60, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.  The supernatural lights, comparable to those of the Welsh holiness revival, were also affirmed to be present, among many other instances, when Parham first spoke in tongues (pg. 54, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson) and when the father of European Pentecostalism, T. B. Barratt, did so.  Barratt’s influence “in connection with the Pentecostal Revival . . . would be difficult to overestimate” (pg. 189, cf. 14-15, The Pentecostal Movement, Donald Gee; cf. pgs. 49, 84, 124, A Theology of the Holy Spirit:  The Pentecostal Experience and the New Testament Witness, Frederick Dale Bruner.  Cf. pg. 121 for Barratt’s connection to A. B. Simpson and to Azusa Street).  Indeed, “Balls, streaks, and pillars of fire were seen so often that they were known as ‘the “like as of fire,”’ referring to and misusing Acts 2:3 (pg. 263, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson).
[11]            Pgs. 57-59, 131, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[12]            Pgs. 16, 84, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[13]            Pgs. 59-60, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[14]            Pgs. xxi, 87-88, 175, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[15]            Pg. 27, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[16]            Compare pgs. 154-155, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson.
[17]            Pgs. 59, 103, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.  One of the twelve “elders” of the Azusa Street Mission was a ten-year-old girl; her mother was another “elder” (     pg. 70, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson.).  Either both the mother and her ten-year-old daughter were “the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly” (Titus 1:6), or the spirits at work at Azusa led the leaders there to reject what Paul recorded through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
[18]            Pg. 84, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan; pg. 68, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson.
[19]            Pgs. 87-88, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[20]            The question is not one of the absence in Wales or presence in Pentecostalism of unintelligible speech.  The holiness revival under Roberts featured the practice, rooted in pre-Christian Welsh paganism, of the Welsh hywl.  The Welsh hywl was an “ancient and sacred” Welsh practice (pg. 45, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson) found in the Welsh holiness revival as “speaking in a strange, weird, curious mesmeric manner:  it is a unique kind of incantation” (E. Cynolwyn Pugh, “The Welsh Revival of 1904-1905,” Theology Today XII [July 1955] 226-235, elec. acc. http://www.revival-library.org/catalogues/1904ff/pugh.html).  While the hwyl was not identical with modern Pentecostal gibberish-speech, nonetheless “[s]ome observers of the Welsh revival, hearing unfamiliar speech in prayer and preaching . . . . the . . . Welsh ‘hwyl,’ . . .  reported that worshippers were speaking in tongues” (pg. 45, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson).  See also pg. 147, The Great Revival in Wales:  Also an Account of the Great Revival in Ireland in 1859, S. B. Shaw.  Chicago, IL:  S. B. Shaw, 1905.
[21]            Anderson notes:
Speaking in tongues as a sign of Spirit possession has a history whose origins very likely lie deep in mankind’s past.  Reports of the practice extend from ancient to modern times in virtually every region of the world.  What astonishes the novice student of tongue-speaking is how extraordinarily common this seemingly exotic [to those in Christendom] practice has been and still is.  The phenomenon has certainly been far more extensive and frequent among non-Christians[.] . . . [S]peaking in tongues [was] evident in the inspired prophecies of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi . . . the Thracian cult of Dionysius, the Egyptian cult of Osiris and Isis, the Syrian cult of Adonis, the Phrygian cult of Attis and Cybele, and the Persian cult of Mithras. . . . [The] Spirit . . . through possession, gave men all sorts of miraculous powers.  The pneumatic state was one of ecstasy in which pneuma banishes the human “nous” [or] “mind” and acts or speaks through man.  The deity [demon] spoke out of the pneumatic’s mouth in words that neither he nor anyone else could understand unless they were translated by the Pneuma itself.  To prove that he was indeed a pneumatic, a person had to demonstrate the presence of the Pneuma within him by engaging in ecstatic behavior, especially ecstatic speech. (pgs. 20-21, Vision of the Disinherited:  The Making of American Pentecostalism, Robert Anderson)
[22]            Los Angeles Times, April 18, 1906, pg. 1, reprinted on pgs. 175-177, Azusa Street: The Roots of Modern-Day Pentecost, Frank Bartleman, ed. Synan.
[23]            Pg. 530, “Demythologising the Evan Roberts Revival, 1904-1905,” Robert Pope. Journal of Ecclesiastical History 57:3 (July 2006) 515-534; cf. pgs. 213, 222, etc., Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[24]          Pgs. 176, 183, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.
[25]            Pg. 208, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.
[26]            Pg. 107, A Light in the Land:  Christianity in Wales, 200-2000, Gwyn Davies.
[27]            Pg. 208, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.  Gee made a salvation decision through the preaching of Seth Joshua (pg. 34, The Pentecostal Movement, Gee).
[28]            Pg. 208, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.
[29]            Pg. 209, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.
[30]            One writer notes:
For years a standard Assemblies of God theology was Myer Pearlman’s work, Knowing the Doctrines of the Bible. What Pearlman taught about sanctification is right in line with Keswick ideas. [See pgs. 249-267, Knowing the Doctrines of the Bible (Pentecostal Classics), Myer Pearlman.  Springfield, Gospel Publishing House, rev. ed., 1981; note, e. g., his reference to the “Victorious Life” movement on pg. 264.] This is also true of the teaching of Ernest S. Williams, for twenty years the general superintendent of the Assemblies of God. [See pgs. 31-61, Systematic Theology, Ernest S. Williams, Vol. 3.  Springfield, Gospel Publishing House, 1953, where Keswick writers such as Evan Hopkins, J. Elder Cumming, and Andrew Murray are cited and a Keswick view of sanctification is espoused; Wesleyan influence appears also in Vol. 2, pgs. 256-264.]  More recently, the preeminent theologian in the American Assemblies of God has been Stanley Horton. His teaching fits well with that of his earlier colleagues. [See pgs. 167-196, What the Bible Says About the Holy Spirit, Stanley M. Horton. Springfield, Gospel Publishing House, 1976.] The Assemblies of God is not unique in the Pentecostal movement in its tight correlation with Keswick views. Representative of the Foursquare Church is the standard theology written by Duffield and Van Cleave. In this one can see the same patterns as are found in Keswick, too. [See pgs. 291-324, Foundations of Pentecostal Theology (Los Angeles: L.I.F.E. Bible College, 1983).] There is no question that the Keswick movement had an important role in the shaping of the theology of much of the Pentecostal world. (“Keswick and the Higher Life,” http://www.seeking4truth.com/keswick.htm)
[31]          Pgs. 176-177, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.
[32]            Pg. 530, “Demythologising the Evan Roberts Revival, 1904-1905,” Pope.
[33]            Pg. 530, “Demythologising the Evan Roberts Revival, 1904-1905,” Pope.
[34]            Pg. 185, Voices From the Welsh Revival, 1904-1905, Jones.
[35]            George Jeffries, who had co-founded the Elim Pentecostal movement and after 1940 the Pentecostal “Bible-Pattern Chruch Fellowship,” prominently preached British Israelism (cf. pgs. 186-187, The Pentecostal Movement, Donald Gee).
[36]            Pg. 197, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.  “[M]ost of the . . . Elim congregations . . . had been founded by George Jeffreys” (pg. 207, Ibid).
[37]            Pg. 207, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.  Cf. pgs. 148-151, The Pentecostal Movement, Donald Gee.
[38]            Pgs. 184-185, The Pentecostals, Hollenweger.  “Boddy was . . . the acknowledged leader of early Pentecostalism in Britain” (pg. 60, “Boddy, Alexander,” Biographical Dictionary of Evangelicals, ed. Larsen).  Boddy’s personal testimony to his association with Evan Roberts and the parallels between the Welsh holiness revival and the Pentecostal revival appears on pg. 1, The Apostolic Faith I:6 (Los Angeles, February-March 1907), reprinted on pg. 21, Like As of Fire:  Newspapers from the Azusa Street World Wide Revival:  A Reprint of “The Apostolic Faith” (1906-1908), coll. Fred T. Corum & Rachel A. Sizelove.  Note also pg. 1, The Apostolic Faith I:8 (May 1907) & pg. 1, The Apostolic Faith I:9 (Los Angeles, June-September 1907), reprinted on pgs. 33, 37, Like As of Fire:  Newspapers from the Azusa Street World Wide Revival:  A Reprint of “The Apostolic Faith” (1906-1908), coll. Fred T. Corum & Rachel A. Sizelove.
[39]            Pg. 71, Transforming Keswick:  The Keswick Convention, Past, Present, and Future, Price & Randall.
[40]            Pgs. 23-24, 88, The Pentecostal Movement, Donald Gee.
[41]            “Keswick and the Higher Life,” http://www.seeking4truth.com/keswick.htm.
[42]            Pg. 253, Transforming Keswick:  The Keswick Convention, Past, Present, and Future, Price & Randall.
[43]            Pgs. 20-21, The Pentecostal Movement, Donald Gee.
[44]            Pg. 1, The Apostolic Faith I:6 (Los Angeles, February-March 1907), reprinted on pg. 21, Like As of Fire:  Newspapers from the Azusa Street World Wide Revival:  A Reprint of “The Apostolic Faith” (1906-1908), coll. Fred T. Corum & Rachel A. Sizelove.  The article is predicting what would take place:  “‘Tongues’ at Keswick.”  Pentecostals were present at, promoted, and enjoyed Keswick from the time of the rise of Pentecostalism.  (See, e. g., the account of Pentecostal attendance at Keswick on pgs. 12-13 of the Pentecostal Latter Rain Evangel of September, 1922; a message from the 1922 Convention, where the Keswick speaker testifies that he was healed by the Higher Life of the body from arm pain, is reproduced on pgs. 19-24.)
[45]            Pgs. 37-39, The Pentecostal Movement, Donald Gee.
[46]            For example, the Pentecostal journal Confidence records:
At Keswick [in 1908] . . . We had heard a message on the power of the Christ Life.  The mid-day meal over, we were on the lake, a happy Pentecostal party. . . . Our hearts were full of praise, as we sang: . . . “Jesus . . . Blessed Saviour, Sanctifier, Glorious Lord and coming King. . . . Keswick Convention this year was again the meeting-place for very many of the Lord’s Children, and we were glad to see there faces we had looked into at the [Pentecostal] Sunderland Conference.  There were also hungry ones there longing to know experimentally the secret of victory and of power.
        A brother from Jersey was telling those to whom the Lord led him, how he had left Keswick for three days to visit Sunderland, and had there received a mighty deliverance, a Vision of Jesus and of his own nothingness, and the overwhelming Baptism of the Holy Ghost with the Sign of Tongues. . . .
        We saw other friends with copies of [the Pentecostal periodical] ‘Confidence’ under their arms ready for enquirers. . . . Many of us thank God for Keswick in the past. . . . [T]he Lord . . . is calling His people to an experimental Pentecost, their Birthright because of the Shed blood of Calvary. (pgs. 13-14, Confidence:  A Pentecostal Paper for Great Britain, 5 (August 15, 1908).
[47]            Pg. 107, A Light in the Land:  Christianity in Wales, 200-2000, Gwyn Davies.

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