13.) The true church recognizes that the church and Israel are two different institutions. Not a single one of the 2,300 references to Israel in the Old and New Testaments equate Israel with the church, while the Jewish people are specifically distinguished from the church as two different entities (1 Cor 10:32). The Sabbath was a special sign for the Jewish nation (Ex 31:13, 17) that was first made known to Israel after the nation came out of Egypt (Neh 9:13-14; Eze 20:10-12). There is no proof whatsoever in the Bible that Abel, Noah, Job, Abraham, or any other godly person kept the Sabbath before the days Moses brought Israel out of Egypt. Indeed, Scripture specifically indicates that the covenant that included the Sabbath was not made with the patriarchs, but only with Israel in Moses’ day (Deut 5:3, 12-15). Salvation is not by a sinner’s obedience to the Sabbath or to the rest of the ten commandments, but by faith alone in Christ’s cross-work (Rom 3:28). The law condemns, not saves, which is why 2 Corinthians 3 explicitly states that what was written on “tables of stone” (v. 3), the ten commandments, were a “ministration of death, written and engraven in stones” (v.7), and are “done away” (v. 7, 11, 14) and “abolished” (v. 13). The NT is clear that “the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners” (1 Tim 1:9). The law does not empower believers to live holy lives—they are holy because they are led by the Holy Spirit and are free from the law: “If ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law . . . the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance” (Gal 5:18, 23). The NT explicitly states that the Sabbath was a type of the believer’s resting from his own works and trusting in Jesus Christ alone for salvation. It contrasts entering into God’s rest by faith alone with the failure of the Jews to receive true Sabbath-rest, because they did not rest from their works and trust in the Messiah. People must cease from their works and enter into God’s true Sabbath-rest by faith in Christ: “For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard it. For we which have believed do enter into rest . . . there remaineth therefore a rest [Gk. sabbatismos] to the people of God. For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from his. Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief” (Heb 3-4). According to the New Testament, one who is resting from his works and trusting in Christ has entered the true rest every day of the week, while the SDA who is trusting in his Saturday worship and other works of the law to help earn or maintain salvation is actually rejecting the true rest Christ has purchased for His people! Because the Sabbath was a type or shadow fulfilled by Jesus Christ (Gal 4:4-10), the New Testament indicates that churches were no longer keeping it, and they were not to let anyone judge them for not doing so: “Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days: which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ” (Col 2:16-17). If a Jewish convert to Christianity wished to continue to celebrate the Sabbath, the Passover, or any other Jewish festival day in his home, or wished to obey the Jewish dietary laws, that was tolerable, because salvation is by grace through faith alone, not by Sabbath-observance, or any other works. However, none of the festivals was binding in any way on the Christian: “One man esteemeth one day above another: another esteemeth every day alike. Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind. He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord; and he that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard it. He that eateth, eateth to the Lord, for he giveth God thanks; and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth God thanks” (Rom 14:5-6).
Since the Sabbath is fulfilled in Christ and done away, it is not surprising that the principles of the other nine commandments are repeated in the NT, but the Sabbath is not. Nor is it surprising that there are no examples in the New Testament anywhere of churches meeting for worship specifically on Saturday. On occasion churches would meet every day of the week (Ac 2:47), but apart from such special events, every single example in the NT for church worship was on the first day of the week (Mt 28:8-10; Mr 16:1-2, 10-11; Lu 24:33-34; Jn 20:19-26; Ac 2; 20:7; 1 Cor 16:2). “[T]he first day of the week” was “when the disciples came together to break bread” in the Lord’s Supper (Ac 20:7) and when the churches in different areas assembled week by week and took up the monetary “collection” (1 Cor 16:1-2), because the first day of the week, when Christ rose from the grave (Mr 16:9), is the “Lord’s day” (Rev 1:10).
The idea that the Pope, using the force of the Roman government, changed the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday at some point after the union of Catholicism with the State, is total nonsense. Bible-believing churches do not say that Sunday is the Sabbath, but that the Sabbath is fulfilled in Christ, and they reject the Pope and his many abominations. Consider the following representative testimony of the very earliest documents of Christian history, written almost immediately after the completion of the NT:
[T]hose who had lived in antiquated practices came to newness of hope, no longer keeping the Sabbath but living in accordance with the Lord’s day, on which our life also arose through him and his death . . . At the dawning of the Lord’s day He arose from the dead. (c. A. D. 107)
And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read . . . then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine . . . are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given. . . . Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because . . . Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. (c. A. D. 140)
There were no Popes in A. D. 107, or for centuries afterwards. The pagan Roman government was not conspiring with Popes that did not exist to set up a Roman Catholic church-state with some sort of compulsory Sunday worship. Such ideas are fairy-tales.
Seventh-Day Adventism gets its Saturday worship from the “inspired” visions of Mrs. White, who testified that the fourth commandment was more important than the rest of the ten commandments, and that the pope had changed the Sabbath from Saturday to the first day of the week: “I saw . . . the ten commandments . . . the fourth, the Sabbath commandment . . . shone brighter . . . shone above them all . . . a halo of glory was all around it. . . . I saw that . . . the pope had changed it from the seventh to the first day of the week.” “The pope has changed the day of rest from the seventh to the first day. . . . He has thought to change the greatest commandment in the Decalogue.” The Pope supposedly did this “[i]n the early part of the fourth century [after] the emperor Constantine issued a decree making Sunday a public festival throughout the Roman Empire. . . . The observance of Sunday . . . [is] a child of the papacy . . . [i]n the first centuries the true Sabbath had been kept by all Christians.” Mrs. White’s visions are why the SDA denomination practice Saturday worship: “In . . . vision . . . [t]here was also shown her the change of the Sabbath, the significance of Sabbath, the significance of Sabbath observance, the work before them [the SDAs] in proclaiming the Sabbath truth . . . [and] its importance and its place in the third angel’s message[.] . . . Thus were confirmed by revelation . . . direct revelation . . . the conclusions in regard to the Sabbath[.]” Indeed, one’s salvation or eternal damnation depends not on Christ alone, but on what day of the week he goes to church: “[T]he seal of God is . . . the seventh-day Sabbath[.] . . . The mark of the beast is the opposite of this—the observance of the first day of the week.” “Of all who receive this mark, God says, ‘The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone.’”
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 Note the reference back to Genesis 2:2-3. God’s resting in Genesis (an event not written down, as far as we know, until Moses’ day), pointed forward to the coming salvation-rest in Christ. What is more, when SDAs argue that the seventh-day Sabbath is a creation ordinance and is therefore binding on the church, they miss the fact that the church is not an institution that pertains to this world and the old creation, but to the new creation, the New Jerusalem and the world to come (cf. Col 3:10; 2 Cor 5:17; Rev 21:1; Tit 3:5 & Mt 19:28).
 For more information on the teaching of Hebrews 3-4 and the Saturday Sabbath, please read “Does Hebrews 4:9 Establish that New Testament Churches Need to Worship on Saturday?” at http://faithsaves.net/seventh-day-adventism-and-saturday-sabbath-keeping/.
 For further proof that this passage specifically indicates that the Saturday Sabbath was fulfilled in Christ, see “Colossians 2:16-17: The Sabbath Fulfilled in Christ” at http://faithsaves.net/seventh-day-adventism-and-saturday-sabbath-keeping/.
 Note that Mrs. White taught that vegetarianism helps to bring salvation: “Among those who are waiting for the coming of the Lord . . . flesh will cease to form a part of their diet . . . Those who have received instruction regarding the evils of the use of flesh foods, tea, and coffee . . . will not continue to indulge their appetite . . . a work that will have to be done before His people can stand before Him a perfected people. . . . [M]eat eating . . . endanger[s] the physical, mental, and spiritual health. . . . Even milk will have to be discarded” (pgs. 380-384, Counsels on Diet and Foods, Ellen White). In contrast, God’s Word teaches that being a vegetarian or eating flesh is not a spiritual issue: “But meat commendeth us not to God: for neither, if we eat, are we the better; neither, if we eat not, are we the worse” (1 Cor 8:6). Indeed, the spiritually “weak eateth herbs” only and thinks that it assists him draw closer to God (Rom 14:2; cf. 1 Cor 10:25; 1Ti 4:4; Tit 1:15; Heb 9:10, 13:9).
 1st Commandment (1 Tim 2:5); 2nd (1 Cor 10:7); 3rd (Jam 5:12); 4th (nowhere); 5th (Eph 6:2); 6th (1 Jn 3:15); 7th (Heb 13:4); 8th (Eph 4:28); 9th (Col 3:9); 10th (Eph 5:3).
 Indeed, the fact that Paul and his company regularly took the opportunity on the Sabbath to go to the synagogues to evangelize unbelieving Jews and Gentiles there (Ac 13:13-14, 44; 16:13; 17:2; 18:4) shows that the churches did not meet on Saturday. Godly leaders in the apostolic churches did not skip church week after week to go to synagogues instead. They evangelized in the synagogues on Saturday and assembled for Christian worship on the first day of the week.
 For further examination of Acts 20:7, see “Acts 20:7 and Worship on the First Day of the Week” at http://faithsaves.net/seventh-day-adventism-and-saturday-sabbath-keeping/.
 For further examination of 1 Cor 16:1-2, see “1 Corinthians 16:2 and Church on the First Day of the Week” at http://faithsaves.net/seventh-day-adventism-and-saturday-sabbath-keeping/.
 Considering “every ecclesiastical writer for the first five centuries . . . sabbaton [Sabbath] is never used by them for the first day, [and] Kuriake [the Lord’s Day] is never used by them for the seventh day” (pg. 505, Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, John McClintock & James Strong, vol. 5).
 For an examination of the fearful errors of Roman Catholicism, see: “Bible Truths for Catholic Friends” at http://faithsaves.net/different-religions/.
 Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 9:1 & Epistle to the Trallians, ch. 9.
 Apology I:67, Justin Martyr.
 Pg. 32, Early Writings, Ellen White.
 Pg. 65, Early Writings, Ellen White. Mrs. White and the SDA denomination are very reluctant to answer the questions: “Which Pope changed the Sabbath? What was his name, what year did he do this, and where is his decree doing so?” Such questions cannot be answered effectively because Christians worshipped on the first day of the week from the very beginning, far, far before there were any Popes. Consequently, statements about what “the [unnamed] Pope” did in supposedly changing the Sabbath must be left vague.
 Pgs. 52-53, The Great Controversy, Ellen White.
 According to the SDA denomination, Revelation 14:9-11 does not mean exactly what it says, but rather “the third angel . . . represents the people who receive th[e] message . . . [of] embrac[ing] the Sabbath” (pg. 77, Testimonies, vol. 1, Ellen White).
 Letter to Joseph Bates, April 7, 1847, Ellen White; see Ellen G. White: Messenger to the Remnant, Arthur L. White.
 Pg. 232, Testimony Treasures, vol. 3, Ellen White.
 “God’s Holy Sabbath,” Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, 1897, Ellen White.